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As a result, Corfu's capital has been officially declared a Kastropolis ("castle city") by the Greek government.
From medieval times and into the 17th century, the island, having successfully repulsed the Ottomans during several sieges, was recognised as a bulwark of the European States against the Ottoman Empire and became one of the most fortified places in Europe.
Corfu is located near the Kefalonia geological fault formation; earthquakes have occurred.
Corfu's coastline spans 217 kilometres (135 mi) including capes; its highest point is Mount Pantokrator (911 metres (2,989 ft)); and the second Stravoskiadi, at 849 m (2,785 ft).
The full extent of capes and promontories take in Agia Aikaterini, Drastis to the north, Lefkimmi and Asprokavos to the southeast, and Megachoro to the south.
Two islands are also to be found at a middle point of Gouvia and Corfu Bay, which extends across much of the eastern shore of the island; are known as Lazareto and Ptychia (or Vido).
Its shape resembles a sickle (drepanē, δρεπάνι), to which it was compared by the ancients: the concave side, with the city and harbour of Corfu in the centre, lies toward the Albanian coast.Corfu was eventually ceded by the British Empire along with the remaining islands of the United States of the Ionian Islands, and unification with modern Greece was concluded in 1864 under the Treaty of London.